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AVF '86 - Some Notes on the Early History of the Independent Video Scene in Australia.


An article by Stephen Jones written in 1986 for the history section of the Australian Video Festival, 1986, catalogue

by Stephen Jones


This is a short and thoroughly incomplete look at the development of the video scene in Australia. It is Sydney-biased and personally biased because we have not had anything like enough time to research the history of the other centres. It is incomplete because we have not been able to gather material on every show to have involved video in Australia. The authors are intending to carry out a thorough research into the history of video in Australia and as such, we would welcome any contributions of information and documentation which might be available to establish an archive to be housed in the new Power Gallery in 1989.

As happens with most technological development the video porta-pak was developed for the military. It was first used as an intelligence-gathering medium in the Vietnam war. The first porta-paks to be available for civilian use arrived in New York in 1965. Nam June Paik, a Korean artist working in New York, is said to have been the first to get hold of a porta-pak and go out on the streets to gather local activity and bring it back to the artist’s local café and show it to his colleagues.1 The immediacy of video was instantly recognised and of course its first artistic use was narcissistic. Most of the early New York video art was in the performance field, where the artist can indulge in the glories of the body and the persons entirely in private, and then bring the video out as a documentation of the artwork. But it wasn't long before Paik was making work that was critical as well as celebratory of the world of television, while being embraced by American public television.

Typically, Australia was way behind and we didn't see the porta-pak until the early 1970s. This paper looks at some of the early uses of video in Australia between 1970 and 1980.

Video usually finds itself in one of three generalised contexts. The earliest was the Art and Technology framework which spoke of the potential of the integration of technologies in the arts. Music synthesis, computer graphics, video and other technologies were integrated with performance and art production under the theoretical discourse of information theory and cybernetics. Much of this integrative work was in performance situations as well as in more static installation forms. Secondly, we see the appearance of a very strong sociopolitical, issues-based production stimulated by the access centres and the community media framework. The third is the video art world, ranging from documentation of performance art to works specifically exploring regular artistic concerns; personal, social and formal. Though one can distinguish these three early in the history of video in Australia, we must continue to recognise that video is in itself an integrative medium. As well, all the manifestations of video depend on the strong interlinking of these contexts and the institutions, large and small, which provide the infrastructure of facilities and people necessary for production of any video at all.

1. Early days

The first video work that I know of was made by Mick Glasheen in 1970 while he was an architecture student at the University of New South Wales. Mick was fascinated with the work of Buckminster Fuller, the innovative American architect who invented the geodesic dome and introduced a great deal of the information and systems theory then current in architecture. (Information theory was the work of Shannon and Weaver, and described the processes of communication and information transfer in complex systems; coupled with the work of Norbert Weiner, who introduced the term cybernetics and the concept of feedback as a control mechanism in self-regulating systems). The Work: 'Teleologic Telecast from Spaceship Earth", is a multi-layered collage built up from a lecture recorded when Fuller visited Australia. This material was then processed through what may have been the full gamut of video effects then available, using material that Mick made with his time-lapse film camera bringing about an electronic representation of the concepts that Fuller discusses in the lecture.

2. Inhilbodress
Inhibodress ran in Woolloomooloo from 1970 to 1972. Late in 1971, Peter Kennedy and Mike Parr presented a series of video recordings of performances that had taken place at the gallery or had been made outside in the landscape. Made on an Akai 1/4 inch tape porta-pak the tapes are probably the first use, in Australia, of video in a conceptual art context. David Ahern and his AZ Music group also made video documentation of their new and experimental music performances at Inhibodress.

2a and others

Mike Parr went to eastern Europe in 1972 and recorded his performances there. Segments from these tapes appeared in the film "Idea Demonstrations" (1972). These performances involved the video not just as documentation but as an active part of the installation. The audience's responses feed back into the ongoing presentation of the piece opening up the audience's notions of their involvement in the piece (to paraphrase Mike Parr's comments of 1986). The self-aggression of Parr's work is seen as a way of attacking the audience in their role of taking an interest in the content of the performance, implicating them in the work, pointing up their culpability in that content.

Tim Johnson was using video in performance work at the Tin Sheds at Sydney University in the "Disclosures" series. Johnson, along with Tim Burns, were represented in the show "Recent Australian Art" at the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Oct 18-Nov 18, 1973. Burns, in the piece “A Change of Plan", constructed a room with a monitor mounted outside it. Inside the room was a camera and two people lounging about naked, smoking, eating and doing ordinary things. Though their activity was relayed in real time to the monitor, the mediation of the video system allowed the audience a detachment which removed the element of shock. It was not until one of the naked actors walked casually out of the room to go to the toilet that the spell was broken and the controversy exploded.

3. Bush Video
A number of other people started to get involved with Mick Glasheen, from the Architecture Department, from overseas (John Kirk had been in London and worked with the Centre for Advanced Television Studies video group, who wrote the first portapak video training manual called Cats Video), Joe Khouri, John Lewis, Tom Barbour, Anne Kelly, Melinda Brown, Fat Jack, Ariel and others, all of whom were swayed by the architectural and information-alchemy framework; a group pulled together to explore the world of experimental electronic image-making and theoretical community structuring using interactive media techniques. In 1972 they applied to the then Film, Radio and Television Board of the Australian Council for the Arts for funds to allow the establishment of an experimental cable network at the Aquarius Festival in Nimbin, NSW, in May 1973. A truck, several Sony half-inch portapak, an early half-inch editing system, a bunch of monitors and miles of cable were bought and the whole group moved to Nimbin for the festival. Eventually the town was cabled to some extent and all the material that people had been recording around the festival started to be replayed through monitors placed in some of the festival gathering places. "I remember some of the locals blowing their minds over some of the festival programme material beamed through the cable – they would stand for hours gazing into monitors set in strategic locations on the main street. Nimbin townspeople and festival goers saw the first experiment in public access cable video in Australia."2

When the festival finished, Bush Video came back to Sydney to establish a studio and to compile the material that had been recorded at Nimbin into a record of the Festival. Those tapes were then acquired by the Australian National Gallery. The studio they established in Bay Street, Ultimo, and the squats they lived in on Glebe Point Road, were a revelation to many people. Bush Video slowly gathered more participants, and with further grants from the Australian Council for the Arts gathered more equipment. This enabled them to create an experimental and performance studio in the Bay Street building where new work was being done almost continually. Some of the people who became involved over this period were Philippa Cullen, a dancer, Doug Richardson, working in computer graphics, and myself. Bush Video moved to Paddington in early 1974, and continued in much the same vein. It operated as an experimental studio for many artists for roughly another 18 months, and eventually broke up after the Australia ‘75 festival held in Canberra in March 1975.

Bush Video produced hundreds of hours of tape exploring the possibilities of vision-mixing and video collage, using video feedback, live and portapak originated material, computer graphics, etc. It developed a concept of the video synthesis of information towards a visual language of myth, the alchemy of images, random image juxtaposition and the semantic processes of images in relation to the contexts within which they are perceived. Video feedback and the live spiralling forms that it can generate were thought of in the realm of an analogue of consciousness and the process of action and response that is communications.

4. One Central Street.
After the dematerialisation of Inhibodress, the conceptual art world reappeared at Central Street Gallery over 1973-74. Central Street provided a venue for an extraordinary series of performance work. Dance, music and performance art were all featured. Much of the work was documented in video. The outstanding events were those involving Philippa Cullen (dancer), Ariel (of Bush Video), Greg Shiemer (electronic music) and others in experimental video/music/dance concerts where the feedback between the dancers, the set, and the musical and video hardware was not just human but electronic and biological. "Sonic electronics were one way of raising organic consciousness.” As (Philippa) wrote about the 24 Hour Concert (from 6pm, 26th October, 1974 (at Hogarth Gallery); “the aim is to unite dance with life, performance with process, art object with perceiver, fixed design with change and to highlight the movement of natural activity ...” 3

5. The Video Access Network
While Bush Video had been developing its concepts of experimental and community media, the Film, Radio and Television Board had been investigating a community-interaction media model developed in Canada known as the Challenge For Change project. The presumed potential for social change that video offered provided a basis for a network of centres where video facilities and production personnel were made available to the community to help in the development of better communications pathways within the community. The "... role was to facilitate communications between communities and to assist in transferring information from one segment of the community to another ... The entire community was involved in the process. They selected the topics to be discussed and made editorial decisions ... they decided whether the films should be distributed and where . . ."4

The FR&TVB established 12 video access centres around Australia, (Brisbane, Old; Paddington, Blacktown, Green Valley, Fairfield, Parramatta, NSW; Altona, Footscray, Carlton, Vic; Adelaide, Whyalla, SA; Fremantle/Perth, WA.

The basis for establishment of the video centres was expressed in a FRTVB document, "Community Access Video Centres – Interim Policy and Operational Statement", of 10 May, 1974.

1. Objective
To support or encourage social interaction and community development, using "Community Access Video" as a catalyst and as a creative sociological resource.

2. General
It is the hope of the FRTVB and the Australian Film Institute (AFI) that the Video Access Centres will stimulate awareness and involvement will increase.

3. The Centres
Each centre will be conducted as autonomously as possible through the AFI according to principles established by the FRTVB of the Australian Council for the Arts. This autonomous and independent status is vital to the success of the centres. They should not be part of a rigid, formal structure; rather they should blend into and be of service to the community in which they operate. Ideally, the community will soon recognise and accept the Video Access Centres as a community resource.

4. Director
The 'Centre Director' will be totally responsible for the day to day operation of the centre. An important function of the Director will be to animate and activate the community towards the use of video as an agent of social change.

5. Access
The facilities will be made available without bias or prejudice to any group or individual in the specified community!'

[extracted from Dorothy Henaut's report on the video access centres for the FRTVB, 1976, pp2,3].

The Paddington (City Video) and Carlton (MAVAM Co-op) centres were to be the main resource centres where studio and development facilities would be housed, while all centres would have basic porta-pak and editing facilities and community activist production expertise.

Quoting from the City Video annual report of 1975: "Our objectives were:

  • to encourage the use of video as a sociological tool by the residents of the inner city area,

  • to encourage the exploration and development of the electronic media,

  • development of television as a true art form,

  • to provide back up facilities for the Community Video Access Centres.

"We've been turning the camera upon ourselves, looking at our own lives, people around us, people entangled with us, the crowded and polluted space we live in, demystifying the medium, taping our own news. What happens to us in our community is news!'5

The City Video and Mavam Centres were the main resources for video artists and other major documentary production activity and also provided back-up to places like the Art Gallery of New South Wales when they wanted to put on an exhibition of Video Art.

6. City Video & the Paddington Video Access Centre

City Video had been established upstairs at 445 Oxford Street, Paddington, and had as staff a couple of people with backgrounds in production and community work, as well as an engineer who was to provide technical resources for the whole access network. They started off with the old Sony half-inch open-reel monochrome porta-paks, a half-inch editing system was developed and a colour studio was planned. Much of the discussion about the requirements for the studio equipment were held in conjunction with Bush Video, who had coincidentally found premises directly across the road at 444 Oxford Street. Thus there was much to-ing and fro-ing between the two groups in that first year of the Paddington Video Access Centre's existence. Various members of Bush Video became integrally involved in City Video, assisting in production and the design of the proposed studios, etc.

At City Video Jeune Pritchard and John Martin formed the production team and Mario Fairlie was the engineer. Over the next couple of years the Paddington Video Access Centre (PVAC) attempted to consolidate and achieve real social goals, but as Tom Zubrycki commented in late 1975, "My impression is that so far, its political impact has been minimal. We obviously need to build up outlets, setting up regional and national networks for distribution!” [Brief Notes on the History of PVC, 1978, p2]. A grand plan was hatched by the funding body (by this stage the Australian Film Commission) to establish a community arts centre within Paddington Town Hall, with the PVAC as one of the major components. The PVAC looked as though it would lose all independence at this point and attempted to establish itself as a company limited by guarantee, but the AFC refused to support this move. The PVAC was then moved into the Paddington Town Hall under the umbrella of the Paddington Town Hall Trust. A colour studio was established and production of major work began in earnest, despite a continuing struggle for independence: "The Video Centre staff and community users were greatly dissatisfied from the beginning with the arbitrary manner in which the Trust was appointed - its lack of accountability for its administrative and financial policies and its failure to encourage community involvement in the development of the whole Paddington Town Hall complex!” [ibid. Brief Notes. 1978, p4].

A bitter split developed between the PVAC and the administration and Board of the Paddington Town Hall Trust, and eventually, in August, 1978, the Trust liquidated, taking the PVAC down with it. Meanwhile a number of video projects were completed in the new studios, a showing of video work produced within the PVAC and elsewhere occurred in the Ozone Cinema above the video centre in the Paddington Town Hall. VideOzone as the show was called, may well have been the first time in Australia that a large screen video projector was used in a cinema to show video. Works included Mick Glasheen's "Uluru"; "Grandma Rose, Elsie Mae and Lotte" by Kimble Rendall and Carole Sklan (made in the PVAC studios); and Stephen Jones' "Stonehenge" (also made in the PVAC studios).6 Other major works produced out of the PVAC include Jeune Pritchard's "Queensland Dossier", Jenny Neil's "Exposed to Moral Danger", Lee Chittick and Peter Kennedy's “Juanita Neilson Victoria Street".

A massive hiatus in the Sydney video scene now arose. Finally, the AFC bought back all the equipment from the studios which was to have been auctioned off to help pay the liquidation debts. Then about a year after the liquidation, Western Access was asked to take over management responsibility and re-establish the PVAC. Bronwyn Barwell was appointed director and Jim Tumuth became the engineer.

7. Australia '75

In March 1975 perhaps the most unique event in the realm of Art & Technology in Australia occurred in Canberra. Australia '75 brought together people working in a multitude of technological areas. Lasers, electronic music, video synthesis, computer graphics and performing artists occupied the ballroom of the Lakeside International Hotel. By the end of this event the various hardware and people involved had melded into an interactive environment system that produced performances unique in Australia's art (and technology) history. People involved included Bush Video, John Hansen (video synthesis), Stephen Dunstan (electronic music), Chris Ellyard (computer graphics), Stan Ostoja-Kotkowski (laser sculpture), Greg Schiemer (electronic music) and many others. With the whirlwind of techno-innovation that this group generated, integration of the disparate electronically generated sound and image systems was inevitable. Philippa Cullen, the dancer, worked with various devices which could reflect her movement to the synthesisers and [other instruments] of the video and music people. For example, one of the sets was a triangular floor module which had pressure transducers in each apex. These transducers were initially hooked up to an audio synthesiser built by Tony Furse so that Philippa could control the sounds with her movement.7 As things progressed the hook-ups between sound and video and computer graphics and other systems integrated with a display on a vast bank of monitors as the backdrop to the performers. For those who attended, this was a great event, though it demonstrates only too well how short memories are and how poorly the history of the technical and video arts has been recorded. Australia'75 and all its promise disappeared without a trace.

8. Video in the Art Gallery of New South Wales

The first video event that I saw in the AGNSW was the visit to Australia by Charlotte Moorman and Nam June Paik, in April 1976. (One of a series of contemporary art events sponsored by fabric maker John Kaldor). Paik designed and had built a number of what in those days must have seemed totally whacky video devices, such as a cello made up from three monochrome TV screens built into a perspex case to emulate the shape of a cello, with a cello neck, bridge and strings attached so that Moorman could play it. Moorman then performed with this and other of Paik's devices to the delight of Australian audiences. Paik and Moorman then went to the Solomon Islands to make a program for US public television followed by a team of art students from Alexander Mackie CAE, led by Michael Pursche, who made a sort of Paik-influenced video doco called "Guadalcanal: Transition Transmission".

We later saw Les Levine with his videotapes which introduced the political analysis of the image and the media. Antfarm from the west coast of the US also visited in 1976 and brought us the more humorous side of America's indulgence in its own media image, e.g. the videotape documentation of an event called "Mediaburn" in which a wall of old TV sets is destroyed by the high-speed crash of a pseudo-futuristic car loaded with video cameras and fire. Thus was international video introduced to art audiences in Sydney.

9. The Biennales

Finally in November 1976 the 2nd Biennale of Sydney included a number of works on video in the main body of the show at the Art Gallery of New South Wales. These included a startling documentation of a performance by Stelarc in which he is hung from a scaffold of sorts by fish hooks through his skin. All the Biennales since then have had a sprinkling of video work in them.

10. Other events

The Australian Film and Television School had been established under the Whitlam guidance to train newcomers and brightsparks into the mysteries of film and TV, and also to run in-service training for people already in the industry. In one of the workshop courses Clive Scollay had engaged a performance artist, Dragan Ilic, to perform his piece "Electronic Pencils". . .

"featuring Dragan, Ester and 10,000 pencils. Live performance using multi camera set-up planned for last day of workshop so students could practise newly acquired studio techniques. Severe reaction from one high ranking member of staff. Reason – sculptors to perform naked. Objection not taken seriously by head of workshop, Clive Scollay or by students. Performance to continue. Reply from staff member: “You'll be hearing from me ... this is the National Film School, after all' . . . Friday: A fine integrated performance. Monday: Scollay brought before same officer – informed that contract would not be reviewed."8 .

Ah, video is surely no stranger to controversy.

11. Video stands alone
Feb 1977: Open Processes at Watters Gallery. Organised by Stephen Jones on an open-format basis to allow a wide range of experimental activities to take place. The proposal was

"to provide an environment ... for experimenting with the space and installation ... as a space for working, in public ways, with games, performance, playback, videotaping, real-time audio/video synthesis activities, theatre, dance music, hardware installations (video sculpture). A process environment containing a supply of video hardware, set up in particular configurations. Each element of the system is capable of being coupled to a variety of other elements of the system following the syntactical rules of video and the configurations generated by our selves/minds and our interactions!”9

A small studio was set up in the gallery, and music, dance and performance people were invited to work within this set-up in a video-synthesis exploration. In addition a viewing lounge was set up and tapes were shown from people working in many aspects of experimental and access video throughout Australia. Several installation pieces were also presented. For example, "He, She and Me", by Bob Weis and Judi Stack from the MAVAM Co-op in Melbourne, involved three tapes to be played onto a bank of nine monitors and edited to work together synchronously, presenting a single overall idea. Another major work, by Clive Scollay and Paul Frame, "Time to Move On, The Sugar is Running Out", "produced a multi-track real-time mixdown of prepared tapes, soundtrack, live music, live video and dance, to bring about an information media environment that made me feel as though I was going through a war!”10

Sept. 1977: You, Them and Us – a video installation by Judi Stack and Bob Weis at Ewing Gallery, Melbourne. A developed version of their work in Open Processes, "arose out of a desire ... to establish an environment in which interaction between the viewers, the video makers and the ideas expressed in the tapes was inevitable and essential to the piece."11 The installation was built up around Judi's bedroom, transferred intact, straight from her house to the gallery, right down to the ashtrays. "Us" was conversation between Bob and Judi recorded in the bedroom but now replayed in the gallery with the monitor placed in the room where you would expect the TV to be. In "Them", "a bank of 9 monitors examined the nature of sex-role conditioning through the juxtaposition of media specifications of male and female roles", and "You", "sets up a simple, immediate and effective perceptual feedback situation where the viewer, having been confronted by subjective and objective images of others, is invited to participate actively in the piece by means of a system of closed circuit cameras and monitors."12

May 1977: Video Mayfair – Sydney Film Makers Co-op. A weekend of video-playbacks and discussions. Organised by the Co-op and the access centres and independent tape-makers. "At long last tape-makers in Sydney are doing something about distributing and promoting software!” Tapes included the Media Collective's "The Greatest Advertising Campaign the Country's Ever Known" (based on the Nov. 11, 1975 coup), "Time to Move On, the Sugar's running out" by Clive Scollay and Paul Frame, the "Open Processes" tapes, and "Not Guilty/Not Insane" by Jeune Pritchard for Women Behind Bars.13

Sept. 1977: Video Spectrum – at La Trobe University Union – organised by Warren Burt and Kira Perov. Continuous showings of tapes, plus "a series of live evening performances exploring interactive video-sound-movement-linguistic systems".14 Videomakers included Bill Viola (visiting from the US), Warren Burt, Stephen Jones, Robert Randall and Frank Bendinelli.15

May 1978: Video Mayfair – at Sydney Film Makers Co-op – Three weekends at the co-op, viewings and discussions of the use of video in issues-based programming: Unions, the Economy and the State; Media, Institutions and the Police; and Communications; Personal and Social, provided topical programming frameworks. Tapes included “Queensland Dossier" by Jeune Pritchard and Luce Pellissier, covering political repression in Queensland in the mid 70s; "Keep It Down To A Shout” by Dasha Ross and the Deaf Theatre of NSW; and "Grandma Rose, Elsie Mae and Lottie" by Kimble Rendall and Carole Sklan; and many others.16

Nov. 14-Dec. 3,1978: Plug In and Switch On - Art and Technology in the Education Dept., National Gallery of Victoria. Installations by Robert Randall and Frank Bendinelli: "Jungle Safari" and “Identity Puzzle", and tapes by Warren Burt and Malcolm Ellis among others.17

During late 1978, Martin Fabinyi and Stephen Jones, in conjunction with the people at the PVAC, decided to organise an international video festival for April 1979. But fate intervened and the PVAC, which would have supplied the venue and the infrastructure, was liquidated. Meanwhile Jorge Glusberg, from the Centro de Arte y Communicacion, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, had become interested and invited us to provide a show which could be part of an international exchange programme. This too eventually fell through, though by this time, early 1979, much of the tape had been gathered. So we had to find another way of getting the material exhibited overseas. Bernice Murphy had offered the support of the Australian Gallery Directors Council, and she wrote to The Kitchen in New York, canvassing interest. They were interested, and so we then set about finding other venues in North America. Anna Canepa in New York, and Jill Scott in San Francisco, provided liaison.

The collection of tape, known as "Videotapes from Australia" and curated by Bernice Murphy and myself, which finally went to the US in October 1979, consisted of works of politics and sociology, performance and synthesis, mythology and music. In 30 works by 25 videomakers, this show demonstrated the interdisciplinary approach to video taken in Australia and the sociopolitical consciousness from which video developed with the stimulus of the Video Access centres as well as the concerns of individual artists. The show went to The Kitchen, in New York; Los Angeles Institute of Contemporary Art; Video Free America, in San Francisco; and Video Inn, Vancouver, Canada. When it came back to Australia it was shown at the Art Gallery of NSW as "Project 30: Some Recent Australian Videotapes" (May22-June 8,1980). Anna Canepa arranged for the show to go to the Venice Biennale in July 1980, and finally the show then toured through the regional galleries under the auspices of the AGDC.

There are many events that have not been mentioned here and many still to be mentioned, from the developments in Melbourne as the MAVAM Co-op became Open Channel, to all the shows that occurred after 1980. It is the author's intention to research all this material and we shall be publishing much more in the future. If we've missed you out and you were doing work in the period before 1980 then let us know. The period after 1980 is still to be looked into and if you have material that might help please let us know.

Stephen Jones


1This has been shown recently to be incorrect. The portapak did not arrive until c.1969, however a “portable” video recorder was available in 1965. It is likely that this is what Paik used, recording the parade from his studio window and then taking the player down to the cafe in the back of a taxi.

2 Tom Zubrycki; Bush Video Tharunka XL5, August 7,1973, p1 5.

3Cullen quoted in Jilba Wallace, "Philippa Cullen 1952-1975" City Video, vol.1, no.1, pp18-19.

4Patrick Watson, “Challenge For Change,” Artscanada, April, 1970.

5City Video: National Resource Centre Report 1974-75, pp2,3.

6see Gabrielle Dalton, "Videozone" Camera & Cine, August 1978, pp65-7.

7This is in error. Cullen’s equipment was connected to a computerised patching system built by Phil Connor and Greg Schiemer. It was intended to take signals from the floors and from several theremins and connect them dynamically to an EMS Synthi A so that its patches could be changed on the fly. Furse had intended to bring his Multimode 8 computer synthesiser (the precursor of the Fairlight CMI) to the exhibition but pressure of work prevented him from being able to do that.

8City Video, vol. 1, no. 2, pp18-19.

9Stephen Jones: A Proposal for a Video Installation. Sept. 1976. p2.

10Ibid, pp6-9.

11Meredith Rogers, in Access Video, vol.4, no.1, Dec. '77, p27.


13Refer: Access Video News, vol.3, nos.1&2,1977, p4.

14Warren Burt, Access Video, vol.3, nos.3&4,1977, p5.

15See also Warren Burt, "Post Mortem", Access Video, vol.4, no.1, Dec.1977, p31, and Robert Randall and Frank Bendinelli, "Still Life", Access Video, vol.4, no.2, April 1978, p40.

16See Susan Lambert, "The 2nd Video-Film May Fair", Access Video, vol.4, no.3, Winter 1978, pp4-6; and Jeune Pritchard, "The Queensland Tapes", Access Video, vol.4, no.3, pp9-12.

17 See Stephen Goddard "Plug In & Switch On". Video Access, vol.5, no.1, Summer 1979, pp32-34' See also the tape “Television Generation - Video Babies" produced by Randall & Bendinelli; and Video Access, vol.5, no.1, Summer 1979, p9].